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Events leading up to the trial of Theranos founder Elizabeth Holmes

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·3-min read
Theranos founder Holmes' trial in San Jose
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By Brendan Pierson

(Reuters) - Theranos founder Elizabeth Holmes is on trial in federal court in San Jose, California, on charges of defrauding investors and patients about the now-defunct company's blood-testing technology. She has pleaded not guilty.

Here is a timeline of key events leading up to the trial.

2003 - Holmes founds Theranos, then called Real-Time Cures, after dropping out of Stanford University. Then only 19 years old, Holmes aimed to revolutionize diagnostic testing.

2004 - The nascent company raises more than $6 million in funding, reaching a valuation of $30 million.

2009 - Holmes' then-boyfriend Ramesh "Sunny" Balwani joins Theranos as chief operating officer.

2010 - Theranos raises a further $45 million in funding, reaching a valuation of $1 billion.

2011 - Theranos begins attracting high-profile board members, including two former U.S. secretaries of state, George Shultz and Henry Kissinger.

2012 - The company moves to the former Facebook headquarters in Palo Alto, California.

2013 - Theranos begins promoting its technology, claiming to be able to run a wide range of tests on a single drop of blood using a machine called the Edison, and enters into a partnership with Walgreens Boots Alliance.

2014 - Having raised more than $400 million, Theranos is valued at more than $9 billion. Holmes is recognized by Forbes as a billionaire, thanks to her stake in the company.

February 2015 - An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association criticizes Theranos for failing to publish any of its research in peer-reviewed journals.

July 2015 - Theranos wins U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for a test to detect the herpes simplex 1 virus.

October 2015 - The Wall Street Journal reports that Theranos uses its technology for only a small number of its tests, and that employees doubt their accuracy. The FDA subsequently releases a finding that the company used unapproved devices for tests.

January 2016 - The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) releases a report that one of the company's facilities presents "jeopardy to patient health and safety." The agency said an inspection revealed that the facility did not meet its own quality-control standards, including not properly calibrating equipment.

June 2016 - Walgreens ends its relationship with Theranos.

October 2016 - Partner Fund Management, which invested nearly $100 million in Theranos, sues the company for securities fraud, claiming it lied about its technology to secure the investment. The case is later settled.

April 2017 - Theranos reaches a deal with CMS barring it from the blood-testing business for two years.

March 2018 - The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charges Theranos, Holmes and Balwani with securities fraud. Holmes is stripped of her stake in and control of the company.

June 2018 - Holmes and Balwani are indicted on criminal fraud charges.

September 2018 - Theranos announces that it will dissolve.

March 2021 - Holmes reveals she is pregnant.

August 2021 - Holmes gives birth to her child. A court filing reveals that Holmes plans to argue she was under the control of Balwani, who she says was abusive, at the time of the charged crimes.

September 2021 - Trial begins.

(Compiled by Brendan Pierson in New York; Editing by Will Dunham)

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