When you think of the UK, it’s impossible not to conjure up an image of Her Majesty the Queen, so synonymous is the 95-year-old royal with the island nation.
Since ascending to the throne in 1952, the mother-of-four has worked as a mechanic and military truck driver during World War II, talked politics with 13 prime ministers and 13 US presidents, led 53 Commonwealth countries and welcomed eight grandchildren and 12 great-grandchildren.
However, when Prince Philip announced his retirement in May 2017 at the age of 96, with the full support of the Queen, it served as a poignant reminder that the famous couple would not be able - or wish - to undertake public duties forever.
On Friday, April 9 Buckingham Palace announced that Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, died aged 99. He was the longest serving consort in British history.
Due to the Coronavirus pandemic and lockdown restrictions, only 30 guests were able to attend the funeral, including the late Duke's children and grandsons Prince William and Prince Harry. It's believed the royal family considered his great-grandchildren too young to attend the ceremony.
The Duke's death has since brought into question what will happen when the Queen dies.
Here is everything you need to know about what will happen when she passes:
Will Prince Charles become king when the Queen dies?
The Prince of Wales will become King following the Queen’s death and will address the nation the evening of her passing. Meanwhile, the Duchess of Cornwall will become Queen Camilla.
If Prince Charles chooses to keep his own name (royals can choose another upon ascending to the throne) he will be known as King Charles III. It is believed that Prince William, the Duke of Cambridge, will then become the Prince of Wales.
In 2019, the Sun reported that the Queen would ‘retire’ in 18 months when she turned 94. It was widely believed that Prince Charles would step up to take on the Queen’s duties in 2021.
A royal source reportedly told the publication at the time: ‘Planning for Charles to become king has been going on for some time. A transition is plainly already underway. Her Majesty is in her nineties and can understandably only do so much.’
The same year Prince Charles took the Queen’s place at the Cenotaph on Remembrance Sunday.
However, it's clear the Queen shows no sign of giving up the title just yet. On October 20, 2021 Buckingham Palace announced that she had cancelled a two-day trip to Northern Ireland and had 'reluctantly accepted medical advice to rest for the next few days' at Windsor Castle.
The royal was notably absent from the Remembrance Sunday ceremony at London's war memorial this year.
In a statement released on November 14, Buckingham Palace stated: 'The Queen, having sprained her back, has decided this morning with great regret that she will not be able to attend today's Remembrance Sunday Service at the Cenotaph. Her Majesty is disappointed that she will miss the service.'
However, the 95-year-old made a swift recovery and joined her family and friends for the christening of two of her great-grandsons. The Queen's granddaughters Princess Eugenie and Zara Tindall held a joint service for their sons, August and Lucas, on November 21 in Windsor.
The visit came days after Prince Charles gave an update on his mother's health. 'She’s all right, thank you very much,' he said, per Today. 'Once you get to 95, it’s not quite as easy as it used to be. It’s bad enough at 73!'
The Queen has been slowly reducing the number of public engagements she attends in recent years.
In April this year the royal returned to her official duties for the first time since the death of her husband, and in September was spotted attending an at Westminster Abbey with a walking stick.
What will happen the day the Queen dies?
A brief bulletin will be published from the Palace in the lead up to the Queen’s death, if it is expected due to illness, or soon after.
On the night of her father King George V’s death, the Palace announced: ‘The King’s life is moving peacefully towards its close.’
Two days before Queen Victoria’s death in 1901, the institution shared: ‘The Queen is suffering from great physical prostration, accompanied by symptoms which cause much anxiety.’
Where would the royal family go if the Queen died during Coronavirus?
It was previously presumed that, much like most families, the royal family would come together during this time of mourning.
However, as was seen with Prince Philip's funeral, gathering in large numbers to pay respect to Her Majesty would potentially prove challenging.
Currently, there are no legal limits on the number of people who can attend funerals or commemorative events.
It's worth bearing in mind that Prince Harry and Meghan Markle - who live in Montecito, California with their son Archie - would likely be able to attend the Monarch's funeral, without having to quarantine, given that travel restrictions between the UK and US will lift on November 8.
The Guardian previously reported that, following her death, the Queen would be joined by her senior doctor, gastroenterologist Professor Huw Thomas, who would be in charge of who goes in and out of her room and when the information of her death should be made public.
When the Queen Mother passed away on Easter Saturday in 2002 at the Royal Lodge in Windsor, she is believed to have said ‘goodbye’ to family and friends over the phone before she died.
Where was the Queen during Covid-19?
In March last year, Buckingham Palace confirmed that the Queen was moving to Windsor as a precautionary measure amid the virus outbreak.
The royal’s trip to Windsor Castle took place earlier than planned in the year, and she was expected to remain there beyond the Easter period with her husband. She has since returned to her London base at Buckingham Palace.
Following her departure from London last March, the Queen urged the country to unite and said that everyone had a role to play in the coming days and months to tackle the pandemic.
As a sensible precaution and for practical reasons in the current circumstances, a number of changes are being made to The Queen’s diary.
Read our press release in full:https://t.co/dWXKCT0AQj
— The Royal Family (@RoyalFamily) March 17, 2020
‘We are all being advised to change our normal routines and regular patterns of life for the greater good of the communities we live in and, in particular, to protect the most vulnerable within them,’ the Queen said.
She added: ‘At times such as these, I am reminded that our nation’s history has been forged by people and communities coming together to work as one, concentrating our combined efforts with a focus on the common goal.’
‘Many of us will need to find new ways of staying in touch with each other and making sure that loved ones are safe. I am certain we are up to that challenge. You can be assured that my family and I stand ready to play our part.’
On March 22 2021, it was widely reported that the Queen was planning to give a rare televised address to the nation on coronavirus.
The monarch was thought to have been liaising with the Government on the timing for the speech. Apart from Her Majesty's annual Christmas day address, the last time she made a similar speech was in 2002, following her mother's funeral. She also made rare a rare speech in 1997 after the death of the late Princess Diana and on the topic of the Gulf War in 1991.
Last year, Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall were residing at their Scottish home on the Royals' Balmoral estate, while the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge were staying at Anmer Hall, Norfolk with their three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte and Prince Louis. The family has since returned to their London home, Kensington Palace.
Who will contact the prime minister about the Queen’s death?
According to the Guardian, Sir Christopher Geidt, the Queen’s private secretary, will be the individual in charge of informing the prime minister of the Queen’s passing.
The code word ‘London Bridge’ will be used to announce her death to officials, with civil servants expected to say ‘London Bridge is down’ on secure lines.
When King George VI died, the code was ‘Hyde Park Corner’ was used to prevent switchboard operators from finding out.
The Foreign Office’s Global Response Centre will then share the news to the 15 governments outside the UK where the Queen is also the head of state, and the 36 other nations of the Commonwealth.
How will the public know the Queen has died?
An announcement will go out first to the global news agency Press Association and the rest of the world’s media simultaneously. As per tradition, a footman in mourning clothes will walk out of Buckingham Palace and pin a black-edged notice to the gates.
An easel announcing the death of the Duke was placed outside of Buckingham Palace following his passing on April 9, 2021.
‘While he does this, the palace website will be transformed into a sombre, single page, showing the same text on a dark background,’ the Guardian explains.
A radio alert transmission system known commonly as ‘Rats’ will also be activated which is a wartime alarm.
In 2011, BBC Radio 1 Head of Music Chris Price wrote on the Huffington Post: ‘If you ever hear 'Haunted Dancehall (Nursery Remix)' by Sabres of Paradise on daytime Radio 1, turn the TV on.
‘Something terrible has just happened.’
If the Queen’s death is expected, the news will spread via the main TV channels first, with all BBC channel programmes being paused to show the BBC One feed, which will show of her passing. Newsreaders will be expected to wear black suits and ties which they keep on standby with them at all times. Indeed when Prince Philip passed away, newsreaders were seen on the BBC wearing black.
Pilots are also expected to announce the death during their flights and all comedy TV shows will not be shown until after her funeral.
What will happen in the hours after the Queen’s death?
It might sound morbid but news publications across the world have obituaries prepared which will be published on hearing news of Her Majesty’s passing.
Flags will fly at half-mast across the UK (as was the case when the Duke of Edinburgh died too) and it has been rumoured for several years that workers would be sent home early. While this is yet to be confirmed, the public have been advised in over the last year to work from home, where possible, so it is presumed that a large proportion of the work force will already be at home.
The day of the Queen’s death will be followed by a 12-day mourning period. During this time, the Queen’s body will be moved to Buckingham Palace and preparations will be made for the state funeral. The Archbishop of Canterbury will be in charge of funeral proceedings.
Her Majesty’s coffin will lie in state in Westminster Hall for four days. Previously, this was the case so that the public could pay their respects. However, according the UK guidance during Covid-19, individuals are advised to avoid large and small gatherings in public spaces so it is likely that the measures surrounding a state funeral would have to be amended.
After this period, it is expected that her body will finally then be laid to rest in St George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle. The Queen Mother and King George VI are also buried there.
Will the Queen have a state funeral?
Given that social distancing measures and lockdown restrictions in the UK have eased and lifted, respectively, it's likely the Queen would have a state funeral.
It's believed the state funeral would be held at Westminster Abbey, London and would include a procession in London and Windsor and a nationwide two minutes' silence at midday.
Politico.eu reports that there would also be a 'committal service in St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle, and the Queen will be buried in the castle’s King George VI Memorial Chapel'.
What will happen to the economy after the Queen’s death?
The Queen’s funeral and Charles’ coronation will become national holidays.
On the day of the funeral, the London Stock Exchange will close. It’s unknown what will happen to the British economy following her death. That said, Business Insider reports that the national holidays will result in an estimated economic hit to gross domestic product of £1.2 billion to £6 billion.
In March 2020, the pound fell to its lowest level against the dollar since 1985, as the spread of the virus continued.
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