French foreign minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said the “exceptional decision” was justified by the “exceptional gravity” of the actions of the two Western allies.
It followed the announcement earlier this week that the US and the UK had agreed to help the Australian navy acquire for the first time a fleet of nuclear-powered submarines.
To the fury of Paris, the decision meant the cancellation of a £30 billion deal for France to supply conventional diesel-electric submarines to the Australians.
Mr Le Drian made no mention of recalling the French ambassador to London – suggesting the French regard the US as the prime movers in the deal.
However it is highly unusual for a country to recall its ambassadors from such important allies, suggesting Britain is unlikely to escape the diplomatic fallout completely.
France’s ambassador to Australia, Jean-Pierre Thebault, said Australia had made “huge mistake” as he left his residence Canberra.
“This has been a huge mistake, a very, very bad handling of the partnership,” Thebault said, explaining that the arms agreement between Paris and Canberra was supposed to be based “on trust, mutual understanding and sincerity.”
In his statement, Mr Le Drian – who had previously accused Canberra of a “stab in the back” – said he was acting on the instructions of President Emmanuel Macron.
“This exceptional decision is justified by the exceptional gravity of the announcements made on September 15 by Australia and the United States,” he said.
He said their actions constituted “unacceptable behaviour between allies and partners, whose consequences directly affect the vision we have of our alliances, of our partnerships and of the importance of the Indo-Pacific for Europe”.
The so-called Aukus defence pact between the UK, US and Australia has been widely seen as an attempt to counter the growing military assertiveness of China in the Indo-Pacific region.
Beijing swiftly denounced the initiative as “extremely irresponsible” and a threat to regional peace and stability.
In the Commons on Thursday, Mr Johnson said it was not intended as an “adversarial” move against China or any other power.
He also insisted that relations with France remained “rock solid” while Downing Street described Paris as “a close ally and friend” of the UK.
Nevertheless, the Prime Minister also made clear he expected the agreement to bring “hundreds” of highly-skilled jobs to Britain – jobs which may well have otherwise gone to France.