ATM withdrawals in some parts of the UK have fallen by about 60% since spring 2019, according to analysis by cash machine network Link.
Link said there have been big variations in patterns of cash usage in different parts of the UK and even within different areas of the same city.
Since the Covid pandemic, transaction numbers at ATMs have declined by 40% on average, it said.
Link said it has also seen evidence some poorer areas are particularly reliant on cash use, while larger cities and richer constituencies appear to be going “cashless” more rapidly.
Looking within cities, Link found that, for example, in Glasgow North East, ATM use has declined by a third (33.1%) between May 2019 and May 2023, although as ATM visiting patterns have changed since the pandemic, with people visiting less often but withdrawing more, the amount withdrawn has declined more slowly, by 16.8% over the same period.
In Glasgow Central, ATM use has declined by 59.5% and withdrawal values are down by 46.0% over the same period, Link said.
Link chief executive John Howells said: “Five million people still rely on cash every day and deprivation is the biggest single indicator of cash dependency.
“There is evidence that increasing numbers of people have been using cash as a budgeting tool during the cost-of-living crisis, and many people from poorer communities also lack the digital skills and the tools necessary to access online banking, such as smart phones and broadband.
“We must manage the transition to digital carefully to ensure that millions of vulnerable consumers are not left behind. This means maintaining a good spread of free-to-use ATMs, expanding new services such as cash at the till, and providing consumers with support so they are able to use banking apps and digital payments.
“Link is determined to protect access to cash for those who need it for as long as it is needed, whether people in their area are embracing new payment methods or sticking with cash.”
The analysis only covers Link ATMs across the UK. Link transactions may take place when a customer uses an ATM that does not belong to their bank.
Link found that ATM transactions fell in all parliamentary constituencies between May 2019 and May 2023.
It also found that, as people were visiting ATMs less they were also generally taking out higher amounts of cash when they do visit.
Here are the UK parliamentary constituencies with the biggest falls in transactions between May 2019 and May 2023, according to Link:
1. Cities of London and Westminster, 64.1% fall
2. Bristol West, 63.7% fall
3. Holborn and St Pancras, 63.1% fall
4. Edinburgh North and Leith, 62.6% fall
5. Edinburgh East, 62.5% fall
6. York Central, 60.2% fall
7. Edinburgh South, 59.9% fall
8. Norwich South, 59.6% fall
9. Glasgow Central, 59.5% fall
10. Bath, 59.2% fall
Here are the UK parliamentary constituencies with the smallest falls in transactions between May 2019 and May 2023, according to Link:
1. Liverpool, Walton, 25.2% fall
2. West Tyrone, 25.5% fall
3. Leicester East, 26.4% fall
=4. Wolverhampton South East, 26.9% fall
=4. Bradford South, 26.9% fall
6. Barnsley East, 28.2% fall
7. Cynon Valley, 28.5% fall
8. Birmingham, Hodge Hill, 28.9% fall
9. Stoke-on-Trent North, 29.0% fall
10. Bishop Auckland, 29.2% fall